Called by Pope Clemente XII to reshape the profile and improve the functions of the Ancona harbor, Luigi Vanvitelli starts in 1732 the leper hospital of the city, a structure in which were a combination of sanitary and defensive functions: he had built a true and proper artificial isle. In November 1736 the isle was ready, the consecutive year it became a warehouse and in the meanwhile the job were carrying on. In May 1738 the perimeter is concluded and the entire building was finished on February 13th, 1743.
At that time the building had principally a sanitary role: the merchandise and the persons were hosted on its inner and started to populate it with vivacity until, on XIX century, predominates the military and defensive role of the building and in 1860 it is at the centre of the battle for the conquest of Ancona.
After that date the leper hospital was entrusted to the Ancona district and became a warehouse: for this reason have been many changes about the proportions of the halls and the doors. It is not over because in 1884 the building assumes the role of refinery of sugar: appeared the smokestack inside the court and with the passing time, after the crisis of the first world war, the district supposes to sale the building to private as an industrial building (metallurgy, container..). Finally in 1927 the building was sold to the state and between 1940 and 1955 the leper hospital became first warehouse of the army then warehouse of crude tobacco. There have been more changes, structural intervention and reshaping in which the Mole had maintained its architectonical charisma.
From Fifties to 1990 there were other structure modifications to increase the capacity of the warehouse until in 1989 the building were entrusted to the superintendence that starts a restoration work in order to recover the principal intents. After few time, the leper hospital has been taken by the Ancona district (1990) that on years, thanks to the support of Cariverona foundation, organized an prudent restoration work for giving back to the building the possibility to host exhibitions, conventions and social spaces.